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瀏覽路徑:首頁 > 藝術資訊 > 藝術百科 > 德爾夫特的“斯芬克斯”

德爾夫特的“斯芬克斯”

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約翰尼斯·維米爾(Johannes Vermeer, 1632-1675)

是荷蘭最偉大的畫家之一,

但卻被人遺忘了長達兩個世紀之久。

眾所周知,17世紀,亦即維米爾的時代,是荷蘭的黃金時代。荷蘭在16世紀擺脫西班牙統治,贏得政治獨立后,隨著海上貿易的發展,經濟繁榮國力強盛,到17世紀已成為繼西班牙之后的世界頭號殖民國家。當時德爾夫特雖是個只有兩萬三千人的中小城市,比阿姆斯特丹等世界性的通都大邑和人文薈萃之地不免遜色一些,但也相當繁榮、富足。

維米爾的作品大多是風俗題材的繪畫,他的畫往往只有一兩位人物,一般是從事著家務勞動的婦女。維米爾的畫整個畫面溫馨、舒適、寧靜,給人以莊重的感受,充分表現出了荷蘭市民那種對潔凈環境和優雅舒適的氣氛的喜好。維米爾在藝術風格上也別具特色,他的繪畫形體結實、結構精致,色彩明朗和諧,尤善于表現室內光線和空間感。

維米爾曾經被人忘卻達兩個世紀之久,后來才被“發現”。18世紀的大多數傳記作家都把他忽略了。到了19世紀,注意維米爾的人顯然多起來;自20世紀以來,研究維米爾的人就更多了。

以前,維米爾屈尊排在荷蘭小畫家之列;而今,他的地位扶搖直上,同哈爾斯和倫勃朗并列為荷蘭三大繪畫大師。世人何以要對維米爾如此前倨后恭呢?原因自然是多方面的,時過境遷、審美趣味變化、人們擺脫某些偏頗,恐怕其中重要的一條。

 

然而,關于維米爾其人、其畫,大家卻始終不甚了解。維米爾的生平,若明若暗,維米爾的作品,眾說不一,對維米爾的評價,至今尚無歷史定論。為此,這位17世紀的荷蘭畫家維米爾曾經獲得一個雅號:德爾夫特的斯芬克斯。

 

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