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    Rembrandt van Rijn

    倫勃朗·梵·萊茵

    荷蘭畫家

    1606 - 1669
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    生于:萊頓
    卒于:阿姆斯特丹
    國籍:荷蘭畫家
    老師:

    皮爾特·拉斯特曼(pieter lastman,1583-1633)

    流派:巴洛克藝術
    分享到:
    畫家倫勃朗·梵·萊茵介紹
    倫勃朗·梵·萊茵

    倫勃朗·梵·萊茵,英文名:Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn,俗稱倫勃朗,出生于1606年7月15日,死于1669年10月4日。倫勃朗是17世紀荷蘭最偉大的畫家之一,臺灣把倫勃朗翻譯為林布蘭。倫勃朗早年跟從荷蘭歷史畫家皮爾特·拉斯特曼學習繪畫,1625年在家鄉開設畫室。倫勃朗作品題材廣泛,擅長肖像畫風景畫、風俗畫、宗教畫歷史畫等。倫勃朗一生留下600多幅油畫,300多幅蝕版畫和2000多幅素描,以及100多幅自畫像。

    倫勃朗1606年生于荷蘭萊頓的一個磨坊主家庭,母親是面包師的女兒,除倫勃朗外,他們還有8個孩子。 

    倫勃朗青年時期就已經聲明鵲起,可以說是少年得志。14歲進入萊頓大學;17歲去阿姆斯特丹向歷史畫家拉斯特曼學畫;1627年21歲時倫勃朗已經基本掌握油畫、素描和蝕刻畫的技巧并發展了自己的風格,回家鄉自己開畫室招徒作畫,期間畫了許多自畫像;1631年倫勃朗離開萊頓去阿姆斯特丹,30年代就成為阿姆斯特丹的主要肖像畫家。倫勃朗的肖像畫風格人物安排具有戲劇性,深深打動人心,倫勃朗以神話和宗教故事為題材的作品供不應求。倫勃朗對戲劇很感興趣,經常利用如同舞臺高光的亮色描繪在陰暗背景下的人物。

    倫勃朗代表作之一:《杜爾博士的解剖學課》。從1640年代開始,倫勃朗經常到鄉村漫步和作畫,創作了許多反映大自然的素描和版畫,風格質樸。1661年是倫勃朗作畫最多的一年,創作了包括素描、油畫、版畫在內的大量作品。1663年以后倫勃朗作畫較少,此時他結交了許多中下階層的市民,眼界更為開闊,技巧更為成熟,創造力達到頂峰。 

    倫勃朗生命中苦難的轉折點是從他的名作《夜巡》開始的,在繪制《夜巡》的過程中,倫勃朗固執的想要打破當時的傳統,他的這種做法在當時并不被世人所接受,從此以后,找他訂畫的人越來越少,畫家的生活也逐漸變得潦倒。

    倫勃朗和他的妻子生有4個孩子,只有最小的一個孩子泰塔斯存活,但他妻子在生孩子后不久去世,倫勃朗和女仆韓德瑞克住在一起,女仆為他生了一個女兒,起名叫科爾內利亞,為此受到教會的譴責為“罪惡的生活”。由于倫勃朗為了畫畫經常采購大量的衣物和繪畫工具,從不計較財產,所以很快就到了破產的邊緣。1669年倫勃朗在貧病中去世,身邊只有女兒陪伴,死后葬在西教堂一個無名墓地中。 

    倫勃朗的油畫一貫采用“光暗”處理手法,即采用黑褐色或淺橄欖棕色為背景,將光線概括為一束束電筒光似的集中線,著重在畫的主要部分。這種視覺效果,就好像畫中人物是站在黑色舞臺上,一束強光打在他的臉上。法國19世紀畫家兼批評家弗羅芒坦稱倫勃朗為‘夜光蟲’,還有人說他用黑暗繪就光明。

    倫勃朗對光的使用令人印象深刻,他獨到地運用明暗,他靈活地處理復雜畫面中的明暗光線,用光線強化畫中的主要部分,也讓暗部去弱化和消融次要因素。倫勃朗這種魔術般的明暗處理構成了他的畫風中強烈的戲劇性色彩,也形成了倫勃朗繪畫的重要特色。
    畫家倫勃朗·梵·萊茵作品欣賞

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