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瀏覽路徑:首頁 > 藝術教程 > 水彩畫教程 > 水彩畫心得:如何使用好黑色

水彩畫心得:如何使用好黑色

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黑色是水彩畫里比較難以掌握的顏色,很多新手在學習水彩畫的過程中都經常不知道該怎么使用或是不敢使用黑色,怕畫臟、畫污,本文主要探討水彩畫中黑色的運用。

圖中紅色為深茜紅(Alizarin Crimson),黑色為象牙黑(Ivory Black)。通常水彩畫里所用黑色都是象牙黑。因為煤黑、麻斯黑(氧化鐵黑)透明度都不夠好。

水彩畫調色規律

此圖意在表明三個調色規律。
1.中間的色塊:一個純色,被水稀釋,亮度(這是也可以說是透明度)提高,飽和度(彩度)會有所降低(但不是很嚴重,畢竟純色)。
2.左邊的色塊:一個很濃的純色,與黑色混色,過渡部分亮度會降低,飽和度也降低。
3.右邊的色塊:稀釋的純色與稀釋的黑色混合,亮度飽和度都降低,顯得非常灰。
只有了解以上幾點,才能用好黑色,既能畫出深色色調,又能不讓畫面臟、污。
 
先以水彩畫家簡忠威先生的作品為例。他用黑色比較多,很有說服力。
 
簡忠威水彩作品威尼斯夜色
 
水彩畫家簡忠威水彩畫作品
 
不難發現:
1.水彩畫中盡量不要用稀釋的黑色單獨畫一個沒有彩度沒有冷暖的灰色塊,這通常會很丑。
2.水彩畫中的黑色以濃郁的形式出現并且與其他濃郁深沉的顏色混合在一起,這有兩個好處。首先濃黑色降低了亮度,該暗的暗部得以暗下去,這樣才襯托亮部的亮,整個畫面就有了光;其次,與黑色混合的其他濃郁臟色(群青+熟赭什么的)讓暗部不是一黑到底啥也沒有,有了環境反光的感覺,暗部就不會死板。此外黑色并不是突兀的出現,而是整個畫面有過渡地,亮白——中間調——深色——黑。這樣雖然黑色也頻繁出現,但卻不會臟。
 
再以日本水彩畫家永山裕子為例。

日本畫家永山裕子水彩畫作品

日本畫家永山裕子水彩畫作品

水彩畫黑色用法總結:
 
1.當黑則黑,但別一片死黑:本來就是黑色或者接近黑色的,就該用黑色,但別從頭到尾都一個黑,圖中的碗明顯是黑+熟褐。縫紉機主要是黑色,但也不是一片無差別的死黑。
 
2.不該黑的一點都別黑:其他的部分哪怕暗部都幾乎沒用到黑色。影子的部分都是更濃的純色,頂多加一點點黑,慢慢濃起來,再和碗的黑色銜接。枝葉里的陰影也不是在一個淺綠上直接搞一筆黑色完事兒。而是淺綠——深綠——黑的過渡。
 
本文作者:張天翼
 
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